In 2004, NSF announced a new $40 million per year program called Network Technology and Systems (NeTS), which represents a significant new investment in telecommunications research and education projects and will focus on the following four areas: programmable wireless networks, networking of sensor systems, networking broadly defined, and future Internet design.20 The program has latitude for interdisciplinary work that could also involve physical devices and could suggest a wide range of research topics in the control, deployment, In his May 2004 testimony to this committee, Guru Parulkar of NSF indicated that proposal acceptance rates “in the single digits” were typical for CISE networking research programs. and management of future networks. However, although the NeTS program is a welcome source of additional support and programmatic emphasis on telecommunications research, its relatively modest size is likely to have little overall impact on low proposal acceptance rates. In 2005, NSF announced the Global Environment for Networking Investigations (GENI) initiative, a program still in the planning stage that will focus on new concepts for networking and distributed system architectures and on experimental facilities to investigate them at large scale. Envisioned as encompassing a broad community effort that engages other agencies and countries, as well as corporate entities, the GENI initiative will emphasize the creation of new networking and distributed system architectures that, for example:Build in security and robustness;Enable the vision of pervasive computing and bridge the gap between the physical and virtual worlds by including mobile, wireless, and sensor networks;Enable control and management of other critical infrastructures;Include ease of operation and usability; and Enable new classes of societal-level services and applications.